Komponen-Komponen Sistem Pengapian Konvensional Beserta Fungsinya

Sistem pengapian berfungsi untuk menimbulkan percikkan bunga api pada busi agar terjadi pembakaran campuran bahan bakar dan udara didalam ruang bakar, nantinya tekanan dari proses pembakaran ini akan digunakan untuk mendorong piston dan disalurkan ke poros engkol melalui connecting rod (batang piston) sehingga poros engkol dapat berputar.

Komponen-komponen dari sistem pengapian konvensional terdiri dari baterai, kunci kontak (ignition switch), koil pengapian (ignition coil), platina atau kontak pemutus (breaker point), kondensor, kabel tegangan tinggi, distributor dan busi.
Keterangan :
a. Baterai
b. Kunci kontak
c. Koil pengapian
d. Kabel tegangan tinggi koil
e. Platina
f. Kondensor
g. Distributor
h. Kabel tegangan tinggi busi
i. Busi

Baterai pada sistem pengapian berfungsi untuk penyedia sumber arus listrik dan baterai juga berfungsi untuk menyimpan arus listrik.

Kunci kontak (ignition switch)
Kunci kontak pada sistem pengapian berfungsi untuk menghubungkan dan memutus arus listrik dari bateri ke kumparan primer koil pengapian.

Koil pengapian (ignition coil)
Koil pengapian pada sistem pengapian berfungsi untuk menaikkan tegangan baterai yang sebesar 12 volt menjadi tegangan tinggi kira-kira 5.000 sampai 25.000 volt.

Kontak pemutus atau platina (breaker point)
Platina pada sistem pengapian berfungsi untuk menghubungkan dan memutus arus primer koil ke massa agar menimbulkan induksi tegangan tinggi pada kumparan sekunder koil.

Kondensor pada sistem pengapian berfungsi untuk mencegah terjadinya loncatan bunga api pada celah platina ketika platina mulai membuka. Selain itu, kondensor juga berfungsi untuk mempercepat pemutusan arus primer koil sehingga perubahan medan magnet pada koil juga akan menjadi lebih cepat. Karena perubahan medan magnet cepat maka induksi tegangan tinggi yang ditimbulkan pada kumparan sekunder koil akan menjadi tinggi.

Baca juga : Akibat kondensor pada sistem pengapian konvensional rusak

Kabel tegangan tinggi
Kabel tegangan tinggi pada sistem pengapian konvensional terdapat 2 macam, yaitu kabel tegangan tinggi koil dan kabel tegangan tinggi busi. Kabel tegangan tinggi koil ini berfungsi untuk menyalurkan arus listrik dari koil ke distributor. Sedangkan kabel tegangan tinggi busi berfungsi untuk menyalurkan arus listrik dari distributor ke masing-masing busi.

Distributor berfungsi untuk menyalurkan tegangan tinggi dari kumparan sekunder koil menuju ke masing-masing busi sesuai dengan FO nya (firing order).

Busi
Busi pada sistem pengapian berfungsi untuk meloncatkan bunga api di antara elektroda tengah dan elektroda samping busi, sehingga nantinya loncatan bunga api ini akan digunakan untuk membakar campuran bahan bakar dan udara.

Baca juga : Akibat dari penyetelan celah busi yang tidak tepat

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