Cara Kerja Sistem Pengapian Full Transistor

Jenis sistem pengapian yang banyak digunakan saat ini adalah sistem pengapian elektronik dibandingkan sistem pengapian konvensional dengan platina (contact breaker). Banyaknya penggunaan sistem pengapian elektronik ini dikarenakan sistem pengapian elektronik lebih baik baik dibandingkan dengan sistem pengapian konvensional.

Sistem pengapian elektronik yang sudah berkembang saat ini, salah satunya adalah sistem pengapian transistor. Terdapat dua tipe sistem pengapian transistor yaitu sistem pengapian semi transistor dan sistem pengapian full transistor.

Sistem pengapian full transistor merupakan pengembangan dari sistem pengapian semi transistor.
Pada pengapian semi transistor masih menggunakan kontak point (platina) yang berfungsi untuk memutus dan menyambungkan arus yang digunakan sebagai arus signal atau pemicu pada transistor. Sedangkan pada sistem pengapian full transistor menggunakan pulsa generator (pick up coil) sebagai pembangkit tegangan pulsa yang akan digunakan untuk pemicu transistor.

Cara kerja sistem pengapian full transistor
Ketika kunci kontak On mesin mati
Ketika kunci kontak On, namun mesin masih dalam kondisi mati maka rotor generator tidak akan berputar sehingga tidak akan ada signal tegangan dari pulsa generator (pick up coil) sehingga sistem pengapian full transistor pada saat ini belum berjalan.

Ketika kunci kontak On mesin hidup
Ketika mesin hidup maka signal rotor akan ikut berputar sehingga akan timbul tegangan pada pulsa generator (pick up coil) ketika signal rotor mendekati pulsa generator. Tegangan pada pulsa generator ini akan digunakan sebagai tegangan signal yang akan dialirkan ke transistor pada terminal B (basis) lalu ke terminal E (Emitor). Tegangan signal yang dihasilkan pulsa generator ini digunakan sebagai pemicu (trigger) untuk menghubungkan terminal C (Colector) dengan terminal E (Emitor) pada transistor.

Karena terminal basis dialiri listrik maka terminal colector dan emitor akan terhubung atau transistor On sehingga arus pada kumparan primer koil pengapian dapat megalir ke massa dan mengakiatkan timbulnya medan magnet pada kumparan primer koil pengapian.

Tegangan dari pulsa generator timbul ketika tonjolan signal rotor mendekati pulsa generator dan sebaliknya saat tonjolan pada signal rotor meninggalkan pulsa generator maka signal tegangan yang dihasilkan oleh pulsa generator akan menghilang sehingga tegangan signal dari pulsa generator ini akan bersifat On dan Off. Ketika tidak ada signal dari pulsa generator maka terminal basis transistor tidak akan dialiri arus sehingga akan memutus hubungan antara terminal colector dengan emitor pada transistor atau transistor menjadi Off.
Ketika transistor menjadi Off maka arus primer akan terputus dari massa sehingga medan magnet pada kumparan primer koil pengapian akan menghilang. Ketika medan magnet pada kumparan primer ini menghilang maka akan timbul tegangan induksi pada kumparan sekunder. Tegangan tinggi yang terjadi pada kumparan sekunder koil pengapian ini akan digunakan untuk memercikkan bunga api pada busi.

Untuk memperkuat tegangan induksi pada kumparan sekunder di koil pengapian, maka pada sistem pengapian full transistor ini dilengkapi dengan penguat tegangan. Penguat tegangan ini berfungsi untuk meningkatkan tegangan induksi pada kumparan primer sehingga tegangan tinggi yang dihasilkan akan lebih tinggi.

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